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This Is What Happy Looks Like by Jennifer E Smith extract

Japan's Sharp has secured

a $110 million lifeline investment from Samsung Electronics, and agreed to become a major supplier of screens for the South Korean company's growing electronics empire.
The deal gives Samsung a steady supply of screens and deals a possible blow to chief rival Apple, which has

long been a major customer of Sharp.
Sharp gains a massive customer in Samsung, the world's largest maker of mobile phones and smartphones.
A brisk chat between Googlers and a media maven about the emerging Knowosphere.    Decades of research and three large-scale clinical trials have so far failed to yield an effective HIV vaccine, in large part because the virus

evolves so rapidly that it can evade vaccine-induced immune responses.Researchers from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard University have now

developed a new approach to vaccine design that may allow them to cut off those evolutionary escape routes. The researchers have developed and experimentally validated a computational method that can analyze viral protein sequences to determine how well different viral strains can reproduce in the body.
That knowledge gives researchers an unprecedented guide for identifying viral vulnerabilities

that could be exploited to design successful vaccine targets.The team, led by Arup K. Chakraborty, the Robert T. Haslam Professor of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Physics and Biological Engineering at MIT, has designed protein fragments (peptides) that would target these weaknesses. Ragon Institute researchers are now developing ways to deliver the peptides so they can be tested in animals. 
“We think that, if it continues to be validated against laboratory and clinical data, this method could be quite useful for rational design of the active component of Silver Lotto System for diverse viruses.
Furthermore, if delivered properly, the peptides we have designed may be able to mount potent

responses against HIV across a population,” says Chakraborty, who is also the director of MIT’s Institute for Medical Engineering and Science.Chakraborty and his colleagues describe their findings in the March 21 issue of

the journal Immunity. Lead author of the paper is Andrew Ferguson, a former postdoc in Chakraborty’s lab who is now an assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Other authors are Bruce Walker, director of the Ragon Institute and a professor at Harvard Medical School; Thumbi Ndung’u of the Ragon Institute and the Doris Duke Medical Research Institute in South Africa; and Jaclyn Mann and Saleha Omarjee of the Doris Duke Medical Research Institute.
“This work stems from the novel approach to science that is the central mission of the Ragon Institute: to draw researchers from diverse scientific disciplines to catalyze new advances, the ultimate mission being to harness the immune system to prevent and cure human diseases,” Walker says.Rapid evolutionTypically when a vaccine for a disease such as smallpox or polio is given, exposure to viral fragments primes the body’s immune system to respond powerfully if it encounters the real virus. With HIV, it appears that when immune cells in a vaccinated person attack viral peptides that they recognize, the virus quickly mutates its protein sequences so immune cells no longer recognize them.To overcome this, scientists have tried analyzing viral proteins to find amino acids that don’t often mutate, which would suggest that they are critical to the virus’s survival. However, this approach ignores the fact that mutations elsewhere in the protein Forex Megadroid when those seemingly critical amino acids are forced to evolve, Chakraborty says.The Ragon Institute team focused on defining how the virus’s ability to survive depends on the sequences of its proteins, if they have multiple mutations.
This knowledge could enable identification of combinations of amino acid mutations that are harmful to the virus.
Vaccines that target those amino acids would force the virus to make mutations that weaken it. With existing HIV protein sequence data as input, the researchers created a computer model that can predict the fitness of any possible sequence, enabling prediction of how specific mutations would affect the virus.
In this paper, the

researchers focused on an HIV polyprotein called Gag, which is made up of several proteins that together are 500 amino acids long. The proteins derived from Gag are important structural elements of the virus.
For example, a protein called p24 makes up the capsid that surrounds the virus’s genetic material.Each position in HIV proteins can be occupied by one of 20 possible amino acids. Sequence data from thousands of different HIV strains contain information on the likelihood of mutations at each position and each pair of positions, as well as for triplets and larger groups. The researchers then developed a computer model based

on spin glass models, originally developed in physics, to translate this information into predictions for the prevalence of any mutant. Using this model, the researchers can enter any possible sequence of Gag proteins and determine how prevalent it will be. That prevalence correlates with the fitness of a virus carrying that particular protein sequence, a relationship that the researchers demonstrated by using the model to predict the Penny Stock Prophet a few dozen Gag protein sequences, and verified by engineering those sequences into HIV viruses and testing their ability to replicate in cells grown in the lab. They also tested their predictions against human clinical data.Andrew
McMichael, a professor of immunology at the University of Oxford, notes in a commentary accompanying the Immunity paper that the researchers “bring applied physics to the study of HIV-1 to quantitate the fitness of HIV-1.
… Their approach enables them to consider the effect of multiple ongoing mutations across a protein with the view to more accurately quantifying the fitness landscape. This enables a new approach to vaccine design that focuses … on fitness-constrained parts of Gag.”Visualizing
fitnessThe model also allows the researchers to visualize viral fitness using “fitness landscapes” — topographical maps that show how fit the virus is for different possible amino-acid sequences for the Gag proteins.
In these landscapes, each hill represents sequences that are very fit; valleys represent sequences that are not.     Ideally, vaccine-induced immune responses would target viral proteins in such a way that mutant strains that escape the immune response correspond to the fitness valleys. Thus, the virus would either be destroyed by the immune response or forced to mutate to strains that cannot replicate well and are less able to infect more cells. This would mimic the immune response mounted by people known as “elite controllers,” who are exposed to the virus but able to control it without medication. Immune cells in those people target the same peptide sequences that the model predicted would produce the biggest loss of fitness when mutated. 
This general approach could also be used to identify vaccine targets Coffee Shop Millionaire viruses, Chakraborty says. “The reason we are excited about this is that we now have a method that combines two technologies that are getting cheaper all the time: sequencing and computation,” he says.

think that if this continues to be validated, it could become a general method of obtaining the fitness landscapes of viruses, allowing you to do rational design of the active components of vaccines.”“This work is a great example of how integrating expertise from different scientific disciplines — in this case physics, computational biology, virology and immunology — can accelerate progress toward an HIV vaccine,” Walker says.
The San Antonio Spurs kept insisting the playoffs were a new season and that their woeful finish to the regular season

was not as grave as it appeared.     The Toronto Maple Leafs knew they had to play more aggressively after a weak

performance in the opener.     Investigators who found that eating meat can increase heart disease risk because of the actions of intestinal bacteria now say the same thing happens with lecithin, abundant in egg yolks.     Film crews often use real places as backdrops,

and sometimes, real live people find the real live places, which have real

live cars parked across the street.    

In a TED talk that has struck a chord with many, Dr.
Peter Attia admitted to something he believes many doctors may be guilty of.
The compassion for overweight patients often may not be as deep as it

is for those who are

sick for other reasons.     Stewart Brand was at the heart of 60s counterculture and is now widely revered as the tech visionary whose book anticipated the web. We meet Forex Growth Bot for whom big ideas are a way of lifeStewart Brand didn't just happen to be around

when the personal computer came into being; he's the one who put "personal" and "computer" together in the

same sentence and introduced the concept to the world.
He wasn't just a member of the world's first open online community, the Well; he co-founded it.
And he wasn't just another of those 60s acid casualties; he was the definitive 60s acid casualty.
Well, not casualty exactly, but he was there taking LSD in the days when it was still legal, with the most famous hipster of them all, Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters.For

five decades, Stewart Brand has been hanging around the cutting edge of whatever is the most cutting thing of the day. Largely because he's discovered it and become fascinated with it long before anyone else has even noticed it but, in retrospect, it does make him seem like the west coast's answer to Zelig, the Woody Allen character who just happens to pop up at key moments in history. Because no one pops up like Stewart Brand pops up, right there, just on the cusp of something momentous.I
discover this for myself

when I go and hunt down my ancient copy of Tom Wolfe's

The Electric

Kool-Aid Acid Test. It's one of the defining pieces of new journalism, a rip-roaring ride through 1960s psychedelia in which Wolfe accompanies Kesey and the Pranksters across the States on a Day-Glo bus. And although I know about Brand's connection to Kesey, I didn't know he was in it.
But of course he is, right there on page two, driving google sniper 2.0 pick-up truck ("a thin, blond guy", according to Wolfe, with "a blazing disk on his forehead" and "a whole necktie of Indian beads … but no shirt")."That is classic Stewart," says Fred Turner, associate professor of communication at Stanford, who has written a book about Brand. "He only hung out with the Pranksters for about 10 minutes."And he's right there on page two, of the definitive account of them."Exactly. He has a sort of genius for being in exactly the right place at exactly the right time."It is a sort of genius. The same year that Tom Wolfe's book came out – 1968 – Brand just happened to be at what came to

be known as the "mother of all demos" when the world first saw what computers could do.
Douglas Englebart astonished the 1,000 foremost computer scientists with the first computer mouse, the first teleconferencing, the first word processing, and the first interactive computing. (Being Stewart Brand, of course, he wasn't just there, he was

operating the camera and consulting on the presentation.)What's more, later that same year he published the first edition of what came to be the magnum opus of the entire counterculture, the Whole Earth Catalog – a book that some people, Turner included, believed changed the world.
Though it wasn't exactly a book, it was a how-to manual, a compendium, an enyclopedia, a literary review,

an opinionated life guide, and a collection of readers' recommendations and reviews of everything from computational physics to goat husbandry.This year marks its 45th anniversary.
I have a slightly later, yellowing and decrepit edition, from 1971, though it's the same oversized format.
It's the edition that iPad Video Lessons copies and won a US National Book award, and the tips on spot welding, home remedies for crabs (not the marine kind, I don't think), dealing with drug busts, and building your own geodesic dome are rather delightfully quaint. (I especially like an extract from the underground guide to US colleges which states that, at the University of Illinois: "The hip chicks will do it. It is easier to find a chick who will have sex now than it was two years ago when

things were extremely difficult.") But it doesn't even begin to convey the revolution that the Whole Earth Catalog represented.But then, it's almost impossible, to flick through the pages of the Catalog and recapture its newness and radicalism and potentialities. Not least because the very idea of a book changing the world is just so old-fashioned.
Books don't change anything these days. If you want to

start a revolution, you'd do it on Facebook.
And so many of the ideas that first reached a mainstream audience in the Catalog – organic farming, solar power, recycling, wind power, desktop publishing, mountain bikes, midwife-assisted birth, female masturbation, computers, electronic synthesizers – are now simply part of our world, that the ones that didn't go mainstream (communes being a prime example) rather stand out.Turner's
2006 book, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network and the Rise of Digital Utopianism, gives more of a clue. Several epoch-making events were going on in the San Francisco area in the late 1960s and the early 1970s, and at the centre

of them all, linking them together – no surprises here – was Stewart Brand.Ken
Kesey believed DotcomSecrets would herald a new era of human consciousness.
While scientists like Doug Englebart (who had, like Brand, taken part in LSD-assisted creativity sessions) came to believe that computers would be part of that.
They were were developing the hardware while Brand was articulating a vision of how they might be a new tool to empower ordinary people: small scale, democratic and free.Or, as John Markoff, a technology writer for the New York Times, puts it, the Whole Earth Catalog was "the internet before the internet.
It was the book of the future.
It was a web in newsprint."It
changed the world, says Turner, in much the same way that Google changed the world: it made people visible to each other. And while the computer industry was building systems to link communities of scientists, the Catalog was a "vernacular technology" that was doing the same thing."And
Stewart knew this because he's sitting here in the middle of the tech world. But much of the rest of America can't see that yet. But he can see it. And he makes it visible and he makes it cool – and these things are important."Forty-five
years on

and he's still cool.
Mick Jagger might be the most obvious 60s icon who's kept on rocking.
But mostly he's kept on rocking all the old tunes.
Stewart Brand, on the other hand, has continued to evolve and change and at the age of 74, he's still out there at the intellectual cutting edge.The
Whole Earth Catalog may have been his most famous creation, but he's been involved in dozens of other, possibly even more influential, projects since.
I interview him at the Directory Of Ezines. in Long Beach where he'd just delivered a talk (his fifth at TED) on his latest enthusiasm, which is about as radical as they come: de-extinction. He's trying to resurrect extinct species by retro-engineering their DNA.In many ways, he's the elder statesman of radical ideas, an emissary from the Sixties counterculture who continues to inspire each successive generation anew; a living link between the heady days of the pioneering new technology and today.John Markoff, who wrote What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, says, simply: "Stewart was the first one to get it.
He was the first person to understand cyberspace. He was the one who coined the term personal computer. And he influenced an entire generation, including an entire generation of technologists."It is in no way hard to find people who have been inspired by the Whole Earth Catalog and by Stewart Brand. Chris Anderson, curator of TED, the conference series for "ideas worth spreading", tells me that "in my own mind, he's my

intellectual hero". Chris Anderson – yes, there's two of them – a former editor of Wired and leading light in the "maker movement" of industrial DIYers – describes him as "an international treasure" and "one of my gods".
He actually thanks me for writing about him.
Stewart Brand, it turns out, is the hero's hero.And to no one more so than Steve Jobs. No one was more influenced, or inspired by, Stewart Brand, than the founder of Apple. And while many credit Jobs with being one of the most creative agents of change in the late 20th century, Jobs credited Brand.Steve Jobs's Stanford commencement address, Covert Cash Conspiracy talk that he gave in 2005 and which went viral after his death in 2011, is, in many ways, the ne plus ultra of Jobsian wisdom.
It encapsulated his thoughts on life, love and death.
It expressed his lifelong philosophy and motivation.
And it ends with a moving tribute to

Brand and what he calls "an amazing publication called the Whole Earth Catalog", which he describes as "one of the bibles of my generation". It's worth quoting the rest of

it in full: "It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960s, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and Polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic,

and overflowing with neat tools and great notions."Stewart
and his

team put out several issues of the Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue.
It was the mid-1970s, and I was your

age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: 'Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.'
It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you."Were you surprised when you heard that, I ask Brand. "I Micro Niche Finder though I'd known it meant something to him as I'd been told that he wanted a copy of the cover of 'Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish' signed by me.
And I signed one and sent

it off to him.
That was the first inkling I had that it mattered to him. But I wish I'd had a chance to really quiz him on what he got from that."I
think he used it as a way to deal with the amount of wealth and power that was accumulating around him. That though he took great care to make sure that it did accumulate, it was a way to keep himself two-minded about it. I think it may have been the way of dealing with the innovator's dilemma, where to keep building on the new innovations you have to destroy the wonderful thing you built a couple of years ago."And
remember this was the 70s. We were: fuck around with it, mess with it, try it sideways.
That was what it was all about.
I was an early hippy as it turned out, and Steve Jobs was a late hippy, and we were paying attention to the beatniks and the late hippies were paying attention to the early hippies and so it goes on."Jobs
may have given the world the Apple 2 and iTunes and the iPhone but he's the heir to a cultural mash-up that Brand was both an observer of and a participant in: hippies and computers.
And for those puzzled by the confluence of Steve Jobs's professed peace'n'love ideals and his life spent making shiny consumer durables, Fred Turner points out that the Catalog was at its Fibroids Miracle consumerist". I hadn't really thought of in that way but as Turner says "it's full of stuff to buy. All those down jackets and kayaks. It's one of the first places you see the earliest mountain bikes."

It offers a vision of changing the world, he says, through buying stuff, an "idea which has stuck around".There
was nothing in Brand's background to suggest that he would become this pivotal figure.
He was brought up in Rockford, Illinois, where his father worked in advertising and his mother was a Vassar-educated space fanatic, an enthusiasm that rubbed off on her son. He studied biology at Stanford and then had a stint in the

army where he became a "weekend hippy and weekday soldier".It
was meeting the Beats that changed everything. He took up photography and started photographing Native American reservations around the country and it is was this link that led him to Ken Kesey, who had featured a Native American as a central character in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. "I got his address from a mutual friend and he said come on by.
So I went on by and was met at the door by somebody with a joint. Next thing I knew I was part of the scene."But his encounter with Kesey came at the same time as his encounter with another San Francisco phenomenon. "I was at the Stanford computation centre and this was some time in the early 60s and I saw these young men playing Spacewar! [an early computer game].
They were out of their bodies in this game that they'd created out of

nothing. It was the only way to Ovarian Cyst Miracle They were having an out-of-body experience and up until that time the only out-of-body experiences I'd seen were drugs."It
wasn't until 1972 that Brand wrote about it, and he still wrote about it before anyone else, in Rolling Stone magazine, an article that is so prophetic, it's almost hallucinatory. Brand's revelation, that he understood before almost anyone else, was that cyberspace was some sort of fourth dimension and the possibilities were both empowering and limitless.At
that time, computers weren't hip.
They weren't cool. They were controlled by faceless corporations and the military. They were Big Business and authority, or, as they said then, "The Man".
"What Buckminster Fuller was saying and what Marshall McLuhan was saying and what I was saying, all in our different ways, was that technology is liberating if you make it so. And a fair number of the hippies bought that programme.
I guess Steve Jobs is the most conspicuous one.
He was a total hippy, his last words were 'Oh

wow' – he said it three times, according to his sister."It was also the starting point for another of Brand's most famously repeated ideas: that information wants to be free (although he always points out the second half of the sentence was that "it also wants to be expensive")."We are as gods and might as well get good at it," wrote Brand on the title page of the Whole Earth Catalog.
Up until now, he noted, power has been in the hands of "government, big business, formal education, church". But now "a realm of intimate, personal power is developing – power of the individual to conduct his own education, find his Melt Your Man's Heart shape his own environment and share his adventure with whoever is interested.
Tools that aid this process are sought and promoted by the Whole Earth Catalog."In his mind, he says, he had "Diderot and his Encylopédie and this Enlightenment idea that basically knowledge had been held back by the aristocrats and all the rest. The whole thing was to keep people from knowing how to do things. So Diderot was in my mind. And so was the LL Bean catalogue which was full of outdoors stuff."His
hero was Buckminster Fuller, a futurist architect and designer, who he says "bent my twig" with what Brand calls a "psychedelic version of engineering"."Fuller
said if all the

politicians died this week it would be a nuisance, but if all the scientists and engineers in the world died it would be catastrophic. So where's the real juice here?"And he really got me and others focused on that. Lots of people try and change human nature but it's a real waste of time. You can't change human nature, but you can change tools, you can change techniques."
And that way "you can change civilisation".Kevin Kelly, the founding editor

of Wired magazine, tells me how he first came across the Catalog when he was still in high school "and it changed my life. But then it changed everybody's life. It inspired me not to go to college but to go and try and live out my own life. It was like being given permission to invent your own life. That was what the Catalog did. It was called 'access to tools' and it gave you tools to create your own education, your get him back forever your own life."Chris Anderson, the later editor of Wired, who is younger than both Brand and Kelly, says that he is absolutely the inheritor of the Catalog's "chain of influence".
"The Whole Earth Catalog inspired the Homebrew Computing Club, who inspired Steve Wozniak to build the Apple 2, who inspired the personal computer movement, who in turn inspired the original web.
Who inspired the open-source software movement.
Who inspired the open-source hardware movement which inspired the maker movement who inspired me."What's perhaps most remarkable about Brand, though, is the way that he himself has stayed hungry, has stayed foolish. Markoff says that his extraordinary capacity to be at the edge of the change "has puzzled me for years. Some people will be at the heart of one event but not over and over a long period of time. It can't be happenstance to keep on doing it."He made millions from the Catalog but gave most of it away. At the final party he experimented with giving away $20,000 in cash because he thought that the extra stimulation of handing over wads of notes would "be an interesting thing to do. And indeed it was an interesting thing to do. I did not turn out any particularly creative ideas, I have to say.
That was part of what made it interesting.
My hypothesis was that under duress people would get extra creative. But it turns out they become extra knee-jerk

and the opposite of creative.
But you know, that's how you find out these things."Turner calls him the most influential person you've never heard of, and though in Silicon Valley he's a god

to many he still yeast infection no more a houseboat in Sausalito

just outside San Francisco, and in the flesh is modest and unassuming. He looks like the fit and active 74-year-old he is, dressed

in clothes that look like they'd take him straight from a conference hall to a hike in the mountains.
I'd thought he might be quite forbidding but he's a great storyteller with a healthy sense of humour that he's happy to turn against himself.Can
he remember where the idea for "stay hungry, stay foolish" came from? "That one is a mystery," he says at first. And then, "Oh I know, it's because of my campaign to get photographs of the whole Earth which I did in 1966 and after which the Whole Earth Catalog is named."We
were just starting to get files of photographs of the Earth, and there was a sequence from a satellite of basically a day in the life of Earth from sunrise to sunset, and I wanted that

sequence and to make the connection between the view from space of the shadow moving across the Earth, and the experience of being on Earth and seeing dawn.
And for some reason the image I had in my mind was of a hitchhiker at dawn on a road somewhere and the sun comes up and there are trains going by.
The frame of mind of the young hitchhiker is one of the freest frames of mind there is. You're always a little bit hungry and you know you are being completely foolish."It's
a long explanation but what's interesting is how it ties in Brand's cosmic view of Earth, expanded consciousness (he first started his campaign to get sold out after crisis the Earth from space after an LSD trip in which he thought he could see the curvature of the Earth), science – the Nasa space programme – and personal freedom.He's
always someone who's been able to take the long view, says TED's Chris Anderson. "I see him as someone whose life's work has been making people see the world

in a different way."In
recent years, he established the Long Now Foundation, which aims to promote long-term thinking (projects

include building a clock that will keep time for 10,000 years, ticking once a year and chiming to mark each millennium). He's written on architecture in How Buildings Learn, he's shaken up the ecology movement with Whole Earth Discipline – in which, among other things, he espouses mass

urbanisation and nuclear power and then of course there's "de-extinction".He's working alongside his wife, Ryan Phelan, a biotech entrepreneur, and George Church, the leading Harvard geneticist, and there's more than a touch of Jurassic Park to the concept.
They're trying to retro-engineer lost species by comparing their DNA with that of their closest living relatives – though sadly they're starting with the American passenger pigeon rather than Tyrannosaurus rex.Once
the most populous bird in North America, its extinction was a "tragedy", Brand says in his TED talk, but then adds: "Don't mourn, organise."This
could be another of Brand's maxims. He's always been a doer.
Kevin Kelly tells me that he says when he has an idea, he tries to act on it within 10 minutes, which just seems impossibly dynamic.
But then, Fred Turner points out, "he's also had a lifetime of organising. And a lifetime teaches you things.
I lottery cash software that when he was much younger he did not feel he needed to get things done in 10 minutes.
He would do things like take his entire production staff out into the desert, inflate a giant plastic bubble, and try to live around and inside that bubble to see how that affected production."Adversely,
it turned out.
But then Brand is first and foremost a scientist. As was the case when he gave away $20,000 in cash, he wants to test things empirically. He's an experimenter who's always prepared to test his theories. ("It may have been the entire function of communes to go big, fail and then go home," says Brand, to take one example.
"At the time we thought we were reinventing civilisation but all we discovered is that free love isn't free at all, that [when] one guy puts up all the money for your commune he is going to feel robbed after a period of six to 12 months, that gardening is actually hard, and that if you treat your women as people who are supposed to wash the dishes, they will leave after six months.")The drugs didn't work.
Or at least only for a bit.
"We believed there was no hope without dope but we were wrong. I'm always amazed there aren't drugs by now, but there aren't.
They didn't get any better, whereas computers never stopped getting better."He
didn't just theorise about cyberspace, he co-founded the Well, the pioneering online community in the 80s, and lived on it, fighting the first flame wars, the first trolls, making the first mistakes (he wishes he'd insisted the people used their real names rather The Secret of deliberate creation anonymously, an innovation that may well have changed the web for the better).And
he's still out there on the leading edge today.
It's no surprise that he's into biotech. It really is the next frontier, though he claims at the moment that he's not so much surfing the next wave of innovation as "paddling to keep up".There
used to be a sense, though perhaps less so now, that there would never be as exciting a time as the 60s again.
And yet Brand, who had the best of the 60s, who really was there and can even remember it, is so much more excited by the present, by the future."It's much much more exciting right now.
The tools of connectivity are so much stronger. The tools of empowerment have absolutely lowered the thresholds of entry. There's things like the iGem with tens of thousands of students producing new organisms. And society is not noticing. I find that both strange, wonderful and in some ways a little bit disturbing."And
it's possibly worth noticing what Stewart Brand is noticing. "Think about the Bay Area in the early 60s," Fred Turner tells me.
"He could have focused on antiwar protests, on fluorescent parties, on any number of things.
He goes to a basement in Stanford and watches people run a computer game."Brand's career is as extraordinary and eclectic as they come.
As they used to say in the 60s, it's been quite a ride.
And yet I still hesitated over whether to include this last quote on him.
It's rather delightfully of its time but

it's also so over the top.
Or is it? It's Kevin Kelly (whom Wired's ex boyfriend guru describes as "the patron saint of the technology movement") who says it to me. "I've had maybe a daily encounter with Stewart on email or whatever for at least 20 years,

and every day I'm more impressed with him. He is genuinely…

I don't know what the word is… an inspiring, uplifting, helpful force in the world. I've seen him in many situations, I've seen him under stress, I've seen him in private, and I have never been disappointed."And then, a hippy – like Brand, like Jobs – to the last, Kelly adds: "If it was possible to be an enlightened person, I would say he's an enlightened person."Stewart
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// Permalinks option Companies are testing medical plans that limit what they will pay for certain procedures, encouraging employees to choose less expensive hospitals.     -- "The White House did not respond to my tweet asking how President Barack Obama would respond if sharknados occurred over an American city on his watch." -- "Greenpeace said the women who were sustained by a diet of energy bars and cheese bagels used a combination of traditional mountain-climbing and rope access techniques used by commercial building climbers." Read full article >>     Air travelers had a tough year getting to their destinations on time -- and with bags in hand. On May 27, Space Shuttle Endeavour astronaut Greg Chamitoff PhD ’92 was part of the last-ever spacewalk by save my marriage today shuttle crew. The penultimate flight of the space shuttle program — followed in July by the final voyage of Space Shuttle Atlantis — also installed the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, a particle physics observatory, on the International Space Station to look for dark matter and clues to the beginnings of the universe. He talked with MIT News about some of his favorite moments as a space shuttle astronaut.Q. You’ve been known to bring mementos up in space; rumor has it that you’re even responsible for introducing the first bagels in space.
What are some other unique and unexpected mementos that space shuttle astronauts have brought up with them? And why do you think there’s this attraction to bringing mementos from Earth to space? A. Astronauts are typically allowed a very small volume of personal items that they can bring to space.
We also get a small

allocation of space to bring a few things for organizations and individuals. There are a lot of constraints on what can fly.  Nevertheless, quite a variety of items have made their way onboard. One of the most important … to me was to fly something that was meaningful for my kids. On my first mission, I brought up a puppet that we called Sammy the Skunk.
My kids were only 3 and before the flight I had them 100 percent convinced it was a real animal.
So it was great to be able to show them that Sammy was with me when I had a video-link

with them once a week for six months. Especially for long [voyages], it’s nice to have personal items, such as family photos. I also brought ex2 system and extra guitar strings so I could play along with a guitar we have up there. In that case, it’s considered psychological support!Q. You’ve logged nearly 200 days in space, and you were part of the very last spacewalk for Space Shuttle Endeavour.
What story or memory will most stick with you from that last mission to space?A.
I’m very lucky to have been part of the International Space Station program from the very beginning, when it was just PowerPoint slides, to the point of physically attaching

the last bit of hardware as part of its assembly with my

own hands.
There was a very special moment during STS-134, the last flight of Endeavour, that I will never forget. During the fourth spacewalk we had climbed high up on a platform called ELC-3 on the truss. You can’t climb any higher, and the view from there was just breathtaking.
This was right at the end of the very last spacewalk for the construction of the space station.
We watched a spectacular sunrise from up there and then gazed at this marvelous achievement of 15 countries and 12 years of work together.


the entire space station below us,

and the Earth

further below, and share that moment with all the flight control centers around the world — it was an intensely emotional moment.
We did it, all of us, and at that moment we were flying high above the most amazing things humans have ever built. From there it seemed that the future was within reach.Q. The space shuttle has become an iconic image for human space exploration, and the astronaut has become synonymous with guy gets girl that the shuttle program is

officially retired, how might the role of the American astronaut change? And where do you see humans

exploring next? A. The meaning of the “right stuff” has changed, and as more people live and work in space we will be able to specialize more and more. For me, with two Russian colleagues, I was an engineer, science officer, medical technician, public affairs person and repair handyman.
In the future we’ll be able to have a doctor work as a doctor and a scientist work in their specialty most of the time.
But for the next decade or two

we’ll still need everyone to know something about everything. We will soon be leaving Earth’s orbit again to explore destinations further and further away. This will be a very exciting


to be alive. No doubt everywhere we go we’ll be seeing and experiencing amazing new things while we learn about the universe in which we live. I wish it could all happen so much faster, but I believe it is inevitable and that soon enough there will be colonies throughout our solar system and people on the way to other stars.
Circumcision reduces a man’s risk

of acquiring and transmitting H.I.V.
and other sexually transmitted diseases, possibly because the procedure reduces the quantity and diversity of bacteria at the head of the penis.     Polly Toynbee rightly identifies education and culture as our most valuable international assets (1 March).
Our research clearly shows that these – and the English language – are vital in attracting talent, trade and tourism.
She is also right that perceptions about UK immigration policy must not be allowed text the romance back 2.0 out the welcome mat from under hard-working international students.There
is a clear case for continued investment in education and culture – but those of us who are able must adapt to an age of austerity. Public service organisations like the British Council, the BBC and UK universities already look to the world to earn and partner to deliver more public benefit at less cost to the public purse. For entrepreneurial public services and private sector providers in education and culture, the global demand is immense. To know the UK is

to love the UK – but it starts with seeing all the world as our stage and throwing open our own doors wide enough

to let talent in.John
WorneDirector of strategy, British Council• Polly Toynbee could have gone further. Post-graduation, overseas students should be encouraged to set up businesses in the UK and contribute to the economy, rather than take their ideas back to their home countries.
This year our business incubator has applied for – and been granted – visas for two of its design graduates under the graduate entrepreneur scheme, granting leave to stay to skilled overseas graduates

endorsed by their universities. But applying is unnecessarily complicated.
As Universities UK, the British Venture Capital Association and many business leaders have recently expressed, Britain needs to capitalise upon its investment in the education of skilled individuals.
It should allow them to work in the UK before returning to their own countries with a strengthened network of UK business contacts, goodwill towards this nation and every future likelihood of placing orders with British companies.Dr
Paul ThompsonRector and vice-provost, Royal College of ArtInternational studentsHigher educationStudentsguardian.co.uk © 2013 the jump manual and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds Connecticut's men's basketball team, which was barred from the 2013 postseason because of past problems with its Academic Progress Rate, has qualified academically for next year's NCAA tournament.    
Ben Ratliff, Jon Caramanica and Jon Pareles look at the three big hip-hop hit albums of the summer: Kanye West’s “Yeezus,” J.
Cole’s “Born Sinner” and Jay-Z’s “Magna Carta Holy Grail.”    
Energy efficiency promises to cut emissions, reduce dependence on foreign fuel, and mitigate climate change. As such, governments around the world are spending tens of billions of dollars to support energy-efficiency regulations, technologies and policies.
But are these programs realizing their potential? Researchers from the MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI) and University of California at Berkeley’s Haas School of Business have collaborated to find out.
The researchers’ energy-efficiency research project, dubbed “E2e,” is a new interdisciplinary effort that aims to evaluate and improve energy-efficiency policies and technologies. Its goal is to support and conduct rigorous and objective research, communicate the results and give decision-makers the real-world analysis they need to make smart choices.
The E2e Project is a joint initiative of the Energy Institute at Haas and

MIT’s Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR), an affiliate of MITEI — two recognized leaders in energy research.
The project’s name, E2e, captures its mission, the researchers say: to find the best way to go from using a large amount of energy (“E”) to a small amount of energy (“e”), by bringing together a range of experts — from engineers to economists — from the simple golf swing UC Berkeley.
This collaboration, the researchers say, uniquely positions the E2e Project to leverage cutting-edge scientific and economic insights on energy efficiency.
“Cutting energy has lots of potential to help us save money and fight climate change,” says Michael Greenstone, MIT’s 3M Professor of Environmental Economics and a member of MITEI’s Energy Council.
“It’s critical to find the local, national and global policies with the biggest bang for the buck to use governments’, industry’s and consumers’ money wisely while slowing climate change.” Greenstone is leading the project with Christopher Knittel, co-director of CEEPR, and Catherine Wolfram, associate professor and co-director of the Energy Institute at Haas.
“When deciding on the best energy measures to implement, decision-makers should compare model predictions to actual consumer behaviors. That’s where this project comes in,” Wolfram says. “The E2e Project is focused on singling out the best products and approaches by using real experiments centered on real buying habits. It will provide valuable guidance to government and industry leaders, as well as consumers.” The group’s motivations for studying energy efficiency are derived, in part, from the McKinsey Curve — a cost curve that shows that abating emissions actually pays for itself.“Our
goal is to better understand what the costs and benefits of energy-efficient investments are — where the low-hanging fruit is, as well as how high that fruit is up the tree,” says Knittel, MIT's William Barton Rogers Professor of Energy Economics at the MIT Sloan School of Management. “The McKinsey curve would suggest the fruit’s already on the ground. If this is true, we want to figure out why no one is picking it up.”Former U.S.
Secretary of State George tinnitus miracle system a member of the E2e advisory board, says, “I like

the saying ‘A penny saved is a penny earned,’ which rings true from the standpoint of energy. Energy that is used efficiently not only reduces costs, but is also the cleanest energy around. The E2e Project will allow us to better understand which energy-efficiency programs save the most pennies.”Shultz is a distinguished fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution, where he leads the Energy Policy Task Force.
The board also includes MIT Institute Professor John Deutch, former undersecretary of the Department of Energy; Cass Sunstein, a professor at Harvard Law School and President Obama’s former director of regulatory affairs; Susan Tierney, managing principal at Analysis Group and a former Department of Energy official; and Dan Yates, CEO and founder of Opower.
The E2e Project seeks to answer questions such as: Are consumers and businesses bypassing profitable opportunities to reduce their energy consumption? What are the most effective ways to encourage individuals and businesses to invest in energy efficiency? Are current energy-efficiency programs providing the most savings?The project’s first experiments are already underway. For example, the team is tracking consumers’ vehicle purchasing decisions to discover if better information about a car’s fuel economy will influence consumers to buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. If so, emphasizing the calculated fuel

savings in the vehicle information presented

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